This tutorial explains in detail the basic benefits and objectives of the OSI model. Find out why the OSI model was created as well as the objectives and benefits of the OSI model.

A network model describes how information is transferred from one network component to another. Just as a house plan defines the materials and technologies used in building the house, a network model defines the protocols and devices needed to build the network.

Technically, a networking model is a complete set of documents that describes how everything should go on in the network. Individually, each document describes a feature, protocol, or device required by a small portion of the network.

Why was the OSI model created?

At the start of IT networking, vendors created proprietary networking models to support their own products. The biggest problem with these models was that they only allowed communication between devices made by the same supplier. For example, a computer made by IBM could only communicate with the computer or network device also made by IBM.

This was neither good nor profitable for both manufacturers and consumers. This not only forced manufacturers to manufacture all of the essential networking devices, but also forced consumers to purchase all of the devices from the same manufacturer.

To overcome this barrier, major hardware manufacturers have agreed to use or support a vendor neutral network model as well as their own proprietary network model in the devices. To create a neutral network model with regard to suppliers, two major efforts were made.

The first was carried out by ISO and the second by DoD. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) created the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and DoD (U.S. Department of Defense) the TCP / IP model.

This tutorial is the first part of the article “Networking reference models explained in detail with examples”. This article explains the following CCNA topic.

Compare and contrast OSI and TCP / IP models

Other parts of this article follow.

The seven-layer OSI model explained with examples

This tutorial is the second part of the article. It explains in detail the seven layers of the OSI model.

Similarities and differences between the OSI and TCP / IP model

This tutorial is the third part of the article. It compares the OSI reference model with the TCP / IP model and lists the similarities and differences between the two models.

Explanation of the TCP / IP reference model

This tutorial is the fourth part of the article. It explains the five layers of the TCP / IP model in detail.

Explanation of data encapsulation and de-encapsulation

This tutorial is the fifth part of the article. It explains how data is wrapped and de-wrapped when it crosses layers.

Objectives of the OSI model

The OSI model was created for the following purposes: –

  • Standardize data networking protocols to allow communication between all networking devices across the globe.
  • Create a common platform for software developers and hardware manufacturers who encourage the creation of networking products that can communicate with each other over the network.
  • To assist network administrators by dividing the process of exchanging large data into smaller segments. Smaller segments are easier to understand, manage and troubleshoot.

Layered approach

The layered approach is the hierarchical way of approaching all the technologies and devices required for effective communication. It allows suppliers and manufacturers to create and design specific applications and hardware in a single layer for a specific purpose without affecting the entire network protocol stack.

The OSI model uses this approach. It divides the entire communication process into seven layers. Each layer describes a particular feature as well as the protocols and devices required to run that feature.

Advantages of the OSI model

The advantages of the OSI model are as follows: –

  • Help network administrators determine the hardware and software required to build their network.
  • Encourage hardware manufacturers to create networking products that can communicate with each other on the network.
  • Provide an educational tool to understand the communication process used between network components.
  • Separate a complex function into simpler components.
  • Make troubleshooting easier, because network administrators can troubleshoot the problem faster and more efficiently by finding a layer that is causing the problem, rather than finding it throughout the network.

That’s it for this part. In the next part of this article, I will explain in detail the seven layers of the OSI model. If you like this tutorial, don’t forget to share it with your friends via your favorite social platform.


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